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From 1G to 4G, the core of mobile communication is human-to-human communication, and personal communication is the core business of mobile communication. But 5G communication is not just human communication, but the introduction of the Internet of Things, industrial automation, and driverlessness. Communication starts with the human-to-human communication and begins with the communication between people and things, and the communication between machines and machines.
The fifth generation of mobile communication technology (5G) is the highest peak in the development of mobile communication technology. It is also an important force that humanity hopes not only to change lives but also to change society.
5G is based on 4G and puts forward higher requirements for mobile communications. It not only has a new level of speed in terms of speed but also in terms of power consumption and delay. The business will also be greatly improved. The development of the Internet will also enter the era of smart Internet from the mobile Internet.
The 5G scenes
International Organization for Standardization 3GPP defines three scenarios for 5G. Among them, eMBB refers to high-volume mobile broadband services such as 3D/Ultra-HD video, mMTC refers to large-scale IoT services, and URLLC refers to businesses that require low latency and highly reliable connections such as driverless and industrial automation.
Through the definition of the three scenarios of 3GPP, we can see that for 5G, the universal view of the world communications industry is that it should not only have high speed, but also meet such higher requirements as low latency, although high speed is still a component of it. section. From 1G to 4G, the core of mobile communication is human-to-human communication, and personal communication is the core business of mobile communication. But 5G communication is not just human communication, but also the introduction of things such as the Internet of things, industrial automation, and driverlessness. Communication starts with people-to-person communication and begins to turn into people-to-person communication until the machine and the machine. Communication.
The 3G scenarios of 5G obviously put forward higher requirements for communications, not only to solve the speed problems that have to be solved, but also to provide users with higher speeds; and to put forward higher requirements on power consumption and delay, and so on. It has completely exceeded our understanding of traditional communications and integrated more application capabilities into 5G. This puts higher demands on communication technology. In these three scenarios, 5G has six basic features.
The 5 basic characteristics of 5G
1. High speed
Compared with 4G, the first problem to be solved by 5G is high speed. The speed of the network will improve, and the user experience and experience will be greatly improved. The network can face unlimited VR/Ultra-HD services, and services that require high network speeds can be widely promoted and used. Therefore, the first feature of 5G defines the speed increase.
In fact, as with each generation of communication technology, it is difficult to say exactly what the speed of 5G is. On the one hand, the peak speed is not the same as the user's actual experience speed. Different technologies will have different speeds in different periods. The peak demand for 5G base stations is not less than 20Gb/s. Of course, this speed is the peak speed and not every user experience. With the use of new technologies, there is room for improvement in this speed.
Such a speed means that users can download a high-definition movie every second, and may also support VR video. This high speed offers opportunities and possibilities for businesses with high speed requirements in the future.
2. Ubiquitous network
With the development of business, network business needs are all-encompassing and widely exist. Only in this way can a richer business be supported for use in complex scenarios. The ubiquitous network has two levels of meaning. One is extensive coverage, and the other is deep coverage.
Extensive refers to the various areas of our social life, which require extensive coverage. Before the high mountains and valleys, it was not necessary to have network coverage, because there were few people living, but if you can cover 5G, you can deploy a large number of sensors for environmental, air quality, and even landscape changes. Earthquake monitoring is very valuable. 5G can provide a network for more of these applications.
Depth refers to the fact that in our lives, although there are already network deployments, we need to go deeper into higher quality coverage. We already have a 4G network in our home today, but the bathroom in the home may not have a good network quality. The underground parking garage basically has no signal and it is now acceptable. With the advent of 5G, the previously poor network quality bathrooms, underground parking garages, etc. can be covered with good 5G networks.
To a certain extent, the ubiquitous network is more important than the high speed. It is only a small number of locally-covered, high-speed networks. It does not guarantee 5G service and experience, and the ubiquitous network is a fundamental guarantee for the 5G experience. The three major scenarios in 3GPP do not talk about ubiquitous networks, but the ubiquitous requirements are implicit in all scenarios.
3. Low power consumption
To support large-scale IoT applications, 5G must have power consumption requirements. In recent years, wearable products have developed, but many bottlenecks have been encountered. The biggest bottleneck is poor experience. Take a smart watch as an example, charge it every day, even if it takes less than a day. All IoT products need communication and energy. Although communication can be achieved through various means today, the supply of energy can only rely on batteries. If the communication process consumes a large amount of energy, it is difficult for the Internet of Things products to be widely accepted by users.
If we can reduce the power consumption, allowing most of the Internet of Things products to charge once a week, or even charge once a month, you can greatly improve the user experience and promote the rapid spread of Internet of Things products. The eMTC evolved based on the LTE protocol. In order to be more suitable for communication between objects and objects, and for lower costs, the LTE protocol was tailored and optimized. The eMTC is deployed based on a cellular network. Its user equipment can directly access the existing LTE network by supporting radio frequency and baseband bandwidth of 1.4 MHz. The eMTC supports peak rates of up to 1 Mbps for the uplink and downlink. The NB-IoT is built on a cellular network and consumes only about 180 kHz of bandwidth. It can be deployed directly on GSM networks, UMTS networks, or LTE networks to reduce deployment costs and achieve smooth upgrades.
NB-IoT can be deployed based on GSM network and UMTS network. It does not need to re-establish the network as the core technology of 5G. However, although it is deployed on the GSM and UMTS networks, it is still a newly constructed network. Its ability to greatly reduce power consumption is also to meet the needs of 5G for low-power Internet of Things scenarios. Like eMTC, it is an integral part of the 5G network architecture.
4. Low delay
A new scenario for 5G is unmanned, industrial automation with highly reliable connections. Information exchanges between people are acceptable. A delay of 140 milliseconds is acceptable, but if the delay is used for driverless, industrial automation, it cannot be accepted. The minimum requirement of 5G for delay is 1 millisecond or even lower. This puts severe demands on the network. And 5G is an inevitable requirement for the application of these new fields.
Driverless cars require a central control center and a car to be interconnected. Cars and cars should also be interconnected. In high-speed operations, a brake needs to send information to the car for an instant reaction. It takes about 100 milliseconds. In time, the car will rush out of tens of meters, which requires the shortest delay in the information sent to the car, brake and vehicle control reaction.
This is especially true of drones. If hundreds of unmanned formations fly, tiny deviations can lead to collisions and accidents. This requires the transmission of information to drones in flight with minimal delays. In the process of industrial automation, the operation of a robotic arm, if it is to be extremely precise, ensures the high quality and accuracy of the work, it also requires minimal delay and the most timely response. These characteristics, in the traditional communication between people and people, even when people and machines communicate, the requirements are not so high, because people's response is slow, does not require the machine so high efficiency and refinement. Whether it is drones, driverless cars or industrial automation, they all operate at high speeds, and they need to ensure timely information transfer and timely response at high speeds. This places high demands on time delays.
To meet the requirement of low latency, various methods need to be found in the 5G network construction to reduce delays. Such edge computing technology will also be adopted in the 5G network architecture.
5. Everything Connected
In traditional communication, the terminal is very limited. In the fixed-line era, the telephone is defined by the crowd. In the era of mobile phones, there has been a huge explosion in the number of terminals. Mobile phones are defined by individual applications. In the era of 5G, terminals were not defined by people, because each person may have several, and each family may have several terminals.
In 2018, China's mobile terminal users have reached 1.4 billion, including mobile phones. The vision of the communications industry for 5G is every square kilometer and can support 1 million mobile terminals. The terminals that access the Internet in the future will not only be our mobile phones today, but will also have even more exotic products. It can be said that every product in our life is likely to access the Internet through 5G. Our glasses, mobile phones, clothes, belts and shoes all have access to the Internet and become smart products. Doors and windows, door locks, air purifiers, new fans, humidifiers, air conditioners, refrigerators, and washing machines in your home are all likely to enter the smart age. With 5G access to the Internet, our family has become a smart home.
In social life, a large number of devices that were previously impossible to connect to will also be networked and smarter. The public facilities such as cars, manhole covers, telephone poles, and trash cans have been difficult to manage and intelligent. And 5G can make these devices become smart devices.
6. Refactor security
The security issue does not seem to be the basic issue discussed by 3GPP, but it should also be a basic feature of 5G.
The traditional Internet is to solve the problem of information speed and barrier-free transmission. Freedom, openness, and sharing are the basic spirit of the Internet. However, the smart Internet is established on the basis of 5G. Smart Internet is not only to achieve information transmission, but also to establish a new mechanism and system for society and life. The basic spirit of the smart Internet is security, management, efficiency, and convenience. Security is the first requirement for smart Internet after 5G. Assuming that 5G has been built but it is unable to reconstruct the security system, it will have tremendous destructive power.
If our drone system is easy to break, it will be like the movie shows, the car on the road is controlled by hackers, the smart health system is compromised, the health information of a large number of users is leaked, the smart family is compromised, and the safety at home is not Protection. This situation should not occur, and the problem is not repaired and tinkering can be solved.
In the 5G network construction, the security problem should be solved at the bottom layer. From the beginning of network construction, security mechanisms should be added, information should be encrypted, the network should not be open, and special security mechanisms need to be established for special services. . The network is not completely neutral and fair. To give a simple example: On the network guarantee, ordinary users access the Internet. There may be only one system to ensure the smoothness of the network, and users may face congestion. However, the intelligent transportation system requires multiple systems to ensure its safe operation and guarantee its network quality. When congestion occurs in the network, it must ensure the smooth flow of the network of the intelligent transportation system. And this system is not a general terminal can access to achieve management and control.