Since the end of last year, the heat of the word "5G" has remained high. As a cutting-edge communications technology, 5G has many terms. Due to the oversimplification and nastyness of the names of standards, codes, and technologies adopted by various institutions and the complexity of 5G technology itself, there are many similar and confusing phenomena in these terms. This article will help you sort out and explain common 5G terms.
IMT-2020 is the legal designation of 5G and was established by the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) at the 2012 World Wireless Communications Conference. To put it bluntly, IMT-2020 is just an alias for 5G.
The 3GPP full name 3rd Generation Partnership Project is an international communications organization. There are four types of members: organization members, market representatives, observers and special guests. Organization members include ARIB (Japan Radio Wave Industry Association), ATIS (United Telecommunications Industry Solutions Alliance), CCSA (China Communications Standards Association), ETSI (European Telecommunication Standardization Association), TSDSI (Telecommunication Standards Development Association of India), and TTA (Korea Telecom) Technical Association) and TTC (Japan Telecom Technology Committee). Market representatives include 18 members including 4G Americas, 5GAA and GSM Association. Observers include 3 members such as ISACC. Special guests include 27 members including CITC and Netgear. The 3GPP will regularly publish new wireless communication technology standards. The Release 15 (R15) is the first version that includes the 5G standard. According to the plan, the second stage of the 5G R16 will be completed in the fourth quarter of 2019.
NR (new air interface)
NR is an abbreviation of "New Radio". The technical topics involved are complex, but in simple terms, NR is a new standard for data communication between wireless devices and base stations. The communication between the device and the base station is wireless, and the communication medium is a radio that propagates in the air. The new air interface (NR) is "a new type of interface for wirelessly transmitting data in the air."
mmWave (millimeter wave)
The millimeter wave is an electromagnetic wave with a frequency of 30 to 300 GHz, and the frequency band is between a microwave and an infrared wave. Millimeter waves applied to 5G technology range from 24 to 100 GHz. The extremely high frequency of millimeter waves gives it a very fast transmission rate. At the same time, its higher bandwidth also allows operators to choose a wider range of frequency bands. You need to know that there are fewer and fewer bands that are idle now. However, the millimeter wave is not perfect, and its ultra-short wavelength (1 to 10 mm) makes it weak to penetrate objects, which leads to signal attenuation. These objects include air, fog, clouds, and thick objects.
Fortunately, the development of communication technologies in recent years has led people to find a way to overcome the short transmission distance of millimeter waves. One way is to simply and roughly increase the number of base stations. Another method is to send electromagnetic waves to the same line through a large number of small antennas to form a focused beam that is powerful enough to extend the effective transmission distance.
Short wavelengths also have advantages. For example, short wavelengths allow the transceiver antenna to be made small enough to be easily plugged into the handset. Low-volume antennas also make it easier to build multi-antenna combo systems in confined spaces.
LDPC full name Low Density Parity Check Code, Chinese translated as "low density parity check code", by the American engineer Robert G. Invented by Gallager. It is a "linear error correction code." It can effectively, accurately and reliably detect whether the data transmitted between devices is correct or not. This capability allows LDPC to be gradually applied to wireless data transmission in complex interference environments.
Polar Code's Chinese is a polar code, first proposed by German Stolte, N and Turkish professor Erdal Ar?kan. Polarization code is a kind of "linear block error correction code". Its role is the same as that of LDPC. It guarantees the correctness and completeness of data transmission. Polarization code and LDPC each have their own advantages, and they are applicable to different scenarios.
The ITU (International Telecommunication Union) divides 5G networks into 3 major categories. The first category is eMMB, which stands for "enhanced Mobile Broadband" and translates as "enhanced mobile broadband." As the name implies, eMMB is a 5G network that is specially designed for mobile devices such as mobile phones. The eMBB will be the first of three categories to be commercially available. After all, the technology maturity of mobile phones is much higher than that of the latter two types of devices.
The second category is URLLC. URLLC's full name is "Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications," translated as "very reliable low latency communication." This kind of network will be mainly used in industrial applications and self-driving vehicles.
The third category is MMTC. MMTC stands for "Massive Machine Type Communications" and translates as "Massive Machine Communication." MMTC is the type of network that will be used in the "Internet of Things" and "Internet of Everything" scenarios. The strength of MMTC is to allow a large number of adjacent devices to enjoy a smooth communication connection at the same time.
5G is the current technology focus of the industry, so there are many related terms that circulate online. Although it is not necessary for consumers to understand the underlying principles, it is still necessary to understand the basic meaning of common terms a little. I hope this article will help you.